Polycythemia vera is a condition characterized by an increased number of
Most cases of PV are not
This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.
|Medical Terms||Other Names|| |
|80%-99% of people have these symptoms|
|Abdominal pain|| |
Pain in stomach[ more ]
|Bruising || |
Bruise easily[ more ]
Bloody nose[ more ]
|Gingival bleeding|| |
Increased spleen size
Ringing in ears[ more ]
|30%-79% of people have these symptoms|
Tired[ more ]
|Respiratory insufficiency|| |
|5%-29% of people have these symptoms|
|Arterial thrombosis|| |
Blood clot in artery
|Gastrointestinal hemorrhage|| |
|Portal vein thrombosis|| |
Blood clot in portal vein
Itching[ more ]
|Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO|
|Increased megakaryocyte count||0005513|
|Increased red blood ||0001898|
Elevated white blood count[ more ]
Low platelet count
Polycythemia vera is frequently caused by mutations (changes) affecting the JAK2
Even though most people with polycythemia vera (PV) have
In rare cases, the mutation to a
Polycythemia vera is diagnosed by testing the blood for levels of a
Erythropoietin is a hormone that is released by the kidneys and helps control the creation of
If low levels of erythropoietin are found in the blood as well as mutations in either JAK2 or TET2, an individual can be diagnosed with polycythemia vera. If mutations are not found in the red blood cells but the doctors still suspect a diagnosis of polycythemia vera, a bone marrow
- The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.
The goal of treatment for polycythemia vera is to decrease the risk for developing deep vein thrombosis. This risk is about 20% for individuals who are above 60 years old or have a history of deep vein thrombosis. The risk can be reduced by keeping the hematocrit, which is the ratio of
There are several treatments for the itching (pruritus) related to polycythemia vera. No single treatment has been found to be effective for all individuals. For mild cases, treatment may include avoiding triggers of itching and dry skin such as hot environment or bathing water. Several other treatments are available for more severe itching or itching that does not respond to initial treatments.
- The NORD Physician Guide for Polycythemia vera was developed as a free service of the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) and it’s medical advisors. The guides provide a resource for clinicians about specific rare disorders to facilitate diagnosis and treatment of their patients with this condition.
The medication(s) listed below have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as orphan products for treatment of this condition. Learn more orphan products.
- Ruxolitinib Phosphate (Brand name: Jakafi) - Manufactured by Incyte Corporation
FDA-approved indication: Treatment of patients with intermediate or high-risk myelofibrosis, including primary myelofibrosis, post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis and post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis. Treatment of patients with polycythemia vera who have had an inadequate response to or are intolerant of hydroxyurea.
If you need medical advice, you can look for doctors or other healthcare professionals who have experience with this disease. You may find these specialists through advocacy organizations, clinical trials, or articles published in medical journals. You may also want to contact a university or tertiary medical center in your area, because these centers tend to see more complex cases and have the latest technology and treatments.
If you can’t find a specialist in your local area, try contacting national or international specialists. They may be able to refer you to someone they know through conferences or research efforts. Some specialists may be willing to consult with you or your local doctors over the phone or by email if you can’t travel to them for care.
You can find more tips in our guide, How to Find a Disease Specialist. We also encourage you to explore the rest of this page to find resources that can help you find specialists.
- To find a medical professional who specializes in genetics, you can ask your doctor for a referral or you can search for one yourself. Online directories are provided by the American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors. If you need additional help, contact a GARD Information Specialist. You can also learn more about genetic consultations from Genetics Home Reference.
The long-term outlook for individuals affected by polycythemia vera may depend on the response to treatment. The most dangerous symptom of polycythemia vera is the chance for a thrombotic event that can cause a heart attack or stroke. There is also a small chance that polycythemia vera could cause an individual to develop leukemia. With proper treatment, however, these symptoms have not been shown to greatly affect the expected lifespan of a person with polycythemia vera.
Another complication that can affect the long-term outlook for a person with polycythemia vera is the uncomfortable itching (pruritus) that can occur as part of the condition. However, many people are able to control the itching with the use of the medications listed above.
Research helps us better understand diseases and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment. This section provides resources to help you learn about medical research and ways to get involved.
Clinical Research Resources
- ClinicalTrials.gov lists trials that are related to Polycythemia vera. Click on the link to go to ClinicalTrials.gov to read descriptions of these studies.
Please note: Studies listed on the ClinicalTrials.gov website are listed for informational purposes only; being listed does not reflect an endorsement by GARD or the NIH. We strongly recommend that you talk with a trusted healthcare provider before choosing to participate in any clinical study.
- The Myeloproliferative Disorders Research Consortium (MPD-RC) is an international, multi-institutional non-profit consortium funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institutes of Health and set up to coordinate, facilitate, and perform basic and clinic research investigating the genetics of MPDs with the goal of developing therapy. To learn more, click on the link.
Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.
Organizations Supporting this Disease
Social Networking Websites
- MPD-Support: Myeloproliferative Diseases Support and Daily E-mail Digest
Living with a genetic or rare disease can impact the daily lives of patients and families. These resources can help families navigate various aspects of living with a rare disease.
- Good Daysprovides help to patients with life-altering conditions. Assistance includes help with the cost of medications and travel.
- Patient Access Network Foundation(PAN Foundation) has Assistance Programs for those with health insurance who reside in the United States. The disease fund status can change over time, so you may need to check back if funds are not currently available.
These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.
Where to Start
- Genetics Home Reference (GHR)contains information on Polycythemia vera. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
- MedlinePluswas designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
- The Merck Manuals Online Medical Libraryprovides information on this condition for patients and caregivers.
- The CMPD Education Foundationprovides online information on myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). Click on the link to view the resource.
- The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute(NHLBI) has information on this topic. NHLBI is part of the National Institutes of Health and supports research, training, and education for the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, and blood diseases.
- The National Organization for Rare Disorders(NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.
- Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
Polycythemia Vera (Hematology)
Pediatric Polycythemia Vera
- The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
- Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
- Orphanetis a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
- PubMedis a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Polycythemia vera. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.
The following diseases are related to Polycythemia vera. If you have a question about any of these diseases, you can contact GARD.
Questions sent to GARD may be posted here if the information could be helpful to others. We remove all identifying information when posting a question to protect your privacy. If you do not want your question posted, please let us know. Submit a new question
- My polycythemia vera is being controlled, but I still have itching after a shower. Is there anything I can do to prevent the awful itching? See answer
- I was living in a home that had a slow leak of carbon monoxide poisoning and was never sick with this until we were exposed to carbon monoxide poisoning. Is there a correlation between carbon monoxide poisoning and polycythemia vera? See answer
- I was diagnosed with polycythemia vera 20 years ago, and I am JAK2 positive. My brother recently learned that his red blood cell count is very high and will now be seeing a hematologist. Is it strange that my brother may have the same condition, even though it is so rare? I researched a polycythemia vera cluster that occurred in several counties and learned that my brother and I had lived in one of them. Has anyone else researched this issue? See answer
- I have polycythemia vera. Can this condition be passed on to my children? See answer
- Tefferi A. Polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: 2012 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management. American Journal of Hematology. 2012; 87(3):285-293. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22331582.
- Polycythemia vera. Genetics Home Reference. July, 2013; http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/polycythemia-vera.
- Polycythemia Vera, PV. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man; November 25, 2014; https://omim.org/entry/263300.
- Erythropoietin (EPO), Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Libraries; 2017; http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/80173.
- Nagalla S and Besa EC. Polycythemia Vera. Medscape; December 2, 2016; http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/205114-overview.
- Saini KS, Patnaik MM, Tefferi A. Polycythemia vera-associated pruritus and its management. European Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2010; 40(9):828-834. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20597963. Accessed 9/7/2014.
- Tefferi A, Fonseca R. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of polycythemia vera-associated pruritus. Blood. 2002; 99(7):2627. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11926187. Accessed 9/7/2014.
This article was originally published on the National Institute of Health’s National Center for Advancing Translational Science website. It was last updated February 11, 2017.